Crude Oil Mineral Resources in Nigeria and the States deposits

Nigeria is the richest in Crude oil deposit in Africa and the 4th in the World; it is the 6th largest producer of crude oil and the 5th largest supplier of crude.

Nigeria is the largest producer of sweet oil in OPEC, the Nigerian grade of crude oil is described as light because of its relatively low density, and sweet because of its low sulphur content otherwise known as Brent crude oil.

These deposits are mainly found in the Niger-Delta which comprises the south-south region and some part of the south-east and few states in the south-west of the country which includes Abia, Akwa Ibom, Rivers, Delta, Bayelsa, Cross River, Imo, Anambra and Ondo State.

 

Crude oil natural mineral deposits in Nigeria

 

Crude oil typically means unrefined petroleum.Petroleum is a fossil fuel found underground formed millions of years ago as a result of the decomposition and pressurisation from the remains of small animals and plants (algae, plankton, and other organisms).

The remains which is covered by mud begins to pile up forming more and more sediment thus leading to its change into rock due to increase in temperature and pressure which in turns makes the plant and animal remains get heated up turning it into crude oil which is a mixture of hydrocarbons (hydrogen and carbon), these hydrocarbons in the rock strata can be convienently extracted and refined to produce fuels like diesel oil including paraffin, gasoline and petrol.

Crude oil Extraction begins with the drilling of wells into the underground reservoir and with the use of a drill bit breaks through the ground bringing the particles to the surface using drilling fluid, a perforated casing is added in the production zone for the oil to flow into the well.

The drilling rig is removed and pumps installed once the well is complete. The pump then removes the oil and distributes it to a network for transportation to the refinery. 

The refining process is carried out using fractional distillation, the petroleum is subjected to heat at about 700oF making the crude oil disintegrate into various components or fractions at a certain boiling point range.

 

Below is the table of crude oil components and their different boiling range.

 

Component

 

Boiling point

Fuel Gas, LPG, refinery gas

< 25oC

 

Gasoline - petrol

25oC – 75oC

 

Naphtha

75oC – 190oC

 

Paraffin, kerosene

190oC – 250oC

 

Diesel oil, gas oil

250oC – 350oC

 

RESIDUE (fuel oil, lubricating oils, waxes)

>350oC

Bitumen

500oC – 700oC

 

Refiners should use more sophisticated additional processes and equipment in order to produce the mix of products that the market demands.

 

The uses of petroleum

  • It is used as a transportation fuel, heating, and electricity generation like gas, petrol, and diesel.
  • Jet fuel is used in aircraft and due to its similar to diesel fuel can be used in either compression ignition engines or turbine engine.
  • It is used as a cooking fuel such as kerosene.
  • The bitumen or asphalt is used to pave or tar road as a binder for gravel to form asphalt concrete.
  • Naphtha is used in paints, rubber industry solvents, cleaning fluids, varnish and asphalt diluents, portable camping stove, cigarette lighters, and lantern fuels.
  • Natural gas is also used in steam crackers and reformers as a major feedstock to produce hydrogen, ethylene and other Olefins.
  • Paraffin wax is a by-product of the refining of lubricating oil and is used as a lubricant and for other applications such as cosmetics.

  • It is used to produce sulphur since some crude oil have a little sulphur content.
  • It’s also used in the production of Carbon (in the form of petroleum coke), and hydrogen which may also be produced as petroleum products and lots more.


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